Native American Indian Animal Spirits: Pogumk

Published on November 17, 2012 by Casey

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Native American Indian Animal Spirits: Pogumk

Name: Pogumk

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Tribal affiliation: Maliseet, Passamaquoddy

Alternate spellings: Pokomk, Po’gum’k, B’gumpk, Pogumpt, Pogump

Pronunciation: poh-gomk

Also known as: Fisher, Black-Cat

Type: Hero, fisher

Pogumk is a hero in Maliseet and Passamaquoddy legends. His name literally means “Fisher.” Sometimes it is erroneously translated as “black cat.” Fishers are actually a species of large weasel, like this. Pogumk was the chief of the Fishers, and his hero cycle had to do with defending his family and his tribe from the witch Pukjinskwes, who wanted to get rid of him so that she or her husband could become chief in his place. Despite being identified as fishers, Pogumk, his family and his rival are usually portrayed as humans in Wabanaki legends. It is typical of Native American legends for the line between humans and animals to be blurred in this way.

Some folklorists have claimed that Pogumk was in reality an alter ego of the culture hero Glooscap. However, we consider this highly unlikely. First, Maliseet elders have dismissed this possibility. Second, the Fisher hero cycle is the only myth in which the name Pogumk is used, and if this was really another name for Glooscap, it would be used more frequently in other myths and legends, since Glooscap is such a major figure in Wabanaki mythology. And third, there are too many differences between the two heroes. Glooscap has powerful magic from the time of his creation, which he used to shape the earth, change monsters into small creatures, etc. Pogumk has no magic powers until his friend Fox lends him some. Pogumk’s mother features prominently in this story, whereas Glooscap never knew his mother (either he was created directly by the Great Spirit, or his mother died in childbirth.) Pogumk has more similarities with other heroes of Eastern Woodlands folklore, who are often stranded by their enemies on islands, in bird nests, in caves, or other remote places from which they need to use their ingenuity and the help of nature to escape.

Source: native-languages Unabridged
Based on the collective work of, © 2015 Native American Encyclopedia.
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