Published on July 20, 2012 by Amy
Ishi (ca. 1860 – March 25, 1916) was the last member of the Yahi, the last surviving group of the Yana people of the U.S. state of California. Ishi is believed to have been the last Native American in Northern California to have lived most of his life completely outside the European American culture. At about 49 years old, in 1911 he emerged from the wild near Oroville, California, leaving his ancestral homeland, present-day Tehama County, near the foothills of Lassen Peak, known to Ishi as “Wa ganu p’a”.
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Ishi means “man” in the Yana language. The anthropologist Alfred Kroeber gave this name to the man because it was rude to ask someone’s name in the Yahi culture. When asked his name, he said: “I have none, because there were no people to name me,” meaning that no Yahi had ever spoken his name. He was taken in by anthropologists at the University of California, Berkeley, who both studied him and hired him as a research assistant. He lived most of his remaining five years in a university building in San Francisco.
Prior to the California Gold Rush of 1848–1855, the Yahi population numbered approximately 400, but the total Yana people numbered about 3,000. The gold rush brought tens of thousands of miners and settlers to northern California, putting pressure on native populations. Gold mining damaged water supplies and killed fish; the deer left the area. The northern Yana group became extinct and the central and southern groups and Yahi populations dropped dramatically. Searching for food, they came into conflict with settlers.
Birth and early life
Ishi is estimated to have been born about 1860–1862. In 1865, when he was a young boy, Ishi and his family were attacked in the Three Knolls Massacre, in which 40 of their tribesmen were killed. Approximately 30 Yahi survived to escape, but shortly after cattlemen killed about half of the survivors. The last survivors, including Ishi and his family, went into hiding for the next 40 years, and their tribe was popularly believed to be extinct.
Richard Burrill wrote, in “Ishi Rediscovered”, that: “In 1865, near the Yahi’s special place, Black Rock, the waters of Mill Creek turned red at the Three Knolls Massacre. “Sixteen” (Moak 1923:20) or “seventeen” (T. Kroeber 1961: 80) Indian fighters killed about forty Yahi, as part of a retaliatory attack for two white women and a man killed at the Workman’s household on Lower Concow Creek near Oroville (Moak 1923:18). Eleven of the Indian fighters that day were Robert A. Anderson, Hiram Good, Sim Moak, Hardy Thomasson, Jack Houser (also spelled Howser by Anderson), Henry Curtis (leader of the Concow men), his brother Frank Curtis, as well as Tom Gore, Bill Matthews, and William Merithew. W. J. Seagraves visited the site, too, but some time after the battle had been fought (Waterman 1918: 53).
Burrill continued, “Robert Anderson (1909:79) wrote, “Into the stream they leaped, but few got out alive. Instead many dead bodies floated down the rapid current.” One captive Indian woman named Mariah from Big Meadows (Lake Almanor today), was one of those who did escape (Burrill, 2003:39). The Three Knolls battle is also described in Theodora Kroeber’s Ishi In Two Worlds (1961: 81-82), but more information has come to light. It is estimated that with this massacre, Ishi’s entire cultural group,the Yana/Yahi, may have been reduced to about sixty individuals. From 1859 to 1911, Ishi’s remote band became more and more infiltrated by non-Yahi Indian representatives, such as Wintun, Nomlaki and Pit River individuals. In 1879, the infamous Indian boarding schools started in California. The ranks of embittered reservation renegades who became the new “boys in the hills”, to quote Robert Anderson, became a direct function of what new attacks or removal campaigns that the volunteers and military troops elected to carry out against the northern California Indian tribes during that time.”
In late 1908, a group of surveyors came across the camp inhabited by an elderly native woman, a man, and young girl — Ishi’s elderly mother, Ishi, and his sister. The latter two fled and the former hid herself in blankets to avoid detection, because she was sick and could not run.
The surveyors ransacked the camp and took everything. Ishi’s mother and other relatives died soon after Ishi’s return.
Walking into white man world
Ishi lived three years beyond the raid alone, the last of his tribe. Finally, starving and with nowhere to go, at the age of about 49 in 1911, Ishi walked out into the white man’s world.
After the native was noticed by townspeople, the local sheriff took the man into custody for his own protection. The “wild man” caught the imagination and attention of thousands of onlookers and curiosity seekers. Professors at the University of California, Berkeley Museum of Anthropology — now the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology (PAHMA) — read about him and brought him to their facility, then housed on the University of California, San Francisco campus in an old law school building. Studied by the university, Ishi also worked with them as a research assistant and lived in an apartment at the museum for most of the remaining five years of his life. In the summer of 1915, he lived temporarily in Berkeley with the anthropologist Thomas Talbot Waterman and his family.
Ishi revealing Yahi culture
Waterman and Alfred L. Kroeber, director of the museum, studied Ishi closely over the years and interviewed him at length to help them reconstruct Yahi culture. He described family units, naming patterns, and the ceremonies which he knew, but much tradition had been lost because of the few survivors with whom he was raised. He identified material items and showed the techniques by which they were made. Ishi provided valuable information on his native Yana language, which was recorded and studied by the linguist Edward Sapir, who had previously done work on the northern dialects.
Illness & Death
Ishi, having come to live in San Francisco, and having no immunity to the ‘diseases of civilization,’ was often ill. He was treated by a Professor of Medicine at UCSF, Saxton T. Pope. M.D. Dr. Pope became close friends with Ishi, and learned from him how to make bows and arrows in the Yahi way. He and Ishi often hunted together.
Ishi died of tuberculosis on March 25, 1916. It was then an incurable disease. His friends at the university initially had tried to prevent an autopsy on Ishi’s body since the body was to be kept intact according to Yahi tradition, but the doctors at the University of California medical school performed one before Waterman was able to stop it. Ishi’s brain was preserved and the body cremated. Included alongside his remains were “one of his bows, five arrows, a basket of acorn meal, a boxful of shell bead money, a purse full of tobacco, three rings, and some obsidian flakes.” Ishi’s remains were interred at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Colma, near San Francisco , but his brain was put in a deerskin-wrapped Pueblo Indian pottery jar and sent to the Smithsonian Institution by Kroeber in 1917, where it remained until August 10, 2000, when his descendants of the Redding Rancheria and Pit River tribes received the brain, according to both the letter and the spirit of the National Museum of the American Indian Act of 1989 (NMAI). According to Robert Fri, director of the National Museum of Natural History,”Contrary to commonly-held belief, Ishi was not the last of his kind. In carrying out the repatriation process we learned that as a Yahi-Yana Indian his closest living descendants are the Yana people of northern California.” Once the brain and cremains were returned, further information about them has remained private.
The Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology at U.C. Berkeley holds a collection, sometimes displayed, of photographs, tools, productive crafts, and early sound recordings; all Ishi’s contribution to our current understanding of his traditional knowledge.
Possibly multi-ethnicn 1996, M. Steven Shackley of UC Berkeley announced work based on a study of Ishi’s arrowheads and those of the northern tribes. He had found that arrowheads made by Ishi were not typical of those recovered from historical Yahi sites. Because Ishi’s production was more typical of arrowheads of the Nomlaki or Wintu tribes and markedly dissimilar to those of Yahi, Shackley suggested that Ishi may have been only half Yahi and of mixed ancestry, related to another of the tribes. He based his conclusion on a comparative study of the arrowheads which Ishi made and others held by the museum from the Yahi, Nomlaki and Wintu cultures. Among Ishi’s techniques was the use of what is now known in flintknapping circles as an Ishi stick, used to run long pressure flakes. As it was a traditional technique of the Nomlaki and Wintu tribes, the finding suggests Ishi may have learned the skill directly from a male relative from one of those tribes. Also small groups, they lived close to the Yahi lands and were traditional competitors and enemies of the Yahi.
In 1994 Shackley had heard a paper by Jerald Johnson, who noted morphological evidence that Ishi’s facial features and height were more typical of the Wintu and Maidu. He theorized that under pressure of diminishing populations, members of groups that were once enemies may have intermarried to survive. To further support this, Johnson presented oral histories from the Wintu and Maidu that told of the tribes’ intermarrying with the Yahi.
If Ishi were descended from both of the tribes and grew up with members of both, it may help explain his adaptive abilities, as his circumstances, essentially from birth, would have been different from the cultural norm of his people. The debate on this has not been definitively settled, however, and the circumstances of his birth probably died with him.