Published on July 2, 2013 by Casey
The history and the way of life of New Mexico Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians. For a comprehensive History timeline regarding the early settlers and colonists refer to the Colonial America Time Period. The history of the State and of its Native American Indians is detailed in a simple History Timeline. This New Mexico Indian History Timeline provides a list detailing dates of conflicts, wars and battles involving New Mexico Indians and their history. We have also detailed major events in US history which impacted the history of the New Mexico Indians. The Navaho, Ute, Comanche and Apache tribes came to the New Mexico region from the north during the 1500′s.
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10,000 B.C. – Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison.
9000 BC – Clovis Culture (named after artefacts found at Clovis, New Mexico. These people used a distinctive type of fluted arrow point
7500 BC – Folsom Culture (named after artefacts found at Folsom, New Mexico. These people used flint arrow point in the shape of a leaf)
7000 BC – Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools
2000 BC – Pecos Culture begins with changes in architecture, art and pottery for the people who lived in a semi-arid environment
1540 – The Tiguex War was the first war between Europeans and Native American Indians. The battles were fought by the army of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado against the Tiwa Indians in New Mexico
1680 – 1680-1692: The Pueblo Revolt was located in New Mexico and Arizona between the Tuscarora Native Americans and the Spanish. This was an initial great victory for the Pueblo but the Spanish re-conquered the lands in 1692
1775 – 1775 – 1783 – The American Revolution.
1776 – July 4, 1776 – United States Declaration of Independence
1803 – The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land
1812 – 1812 – 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America’s Independence
1830 – Indian Removal Act
1832 – Department of Indian Affairs established
1849 – Apache Wars (1849–1924)
1849 – The Jicarilla War fought between the Jicarilla Apaches and Ute warriors against the United States
1858 – Navajo Wars in New Mexico (1858–1864)
1860 – Navajo expedition, New Mexico in which 1,000 warriors waged an attack on Fort Defiance.
1861 – 1861 – 1900 Apache Wars in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Leaving the reservation attacks were made on outposts led by Geronimo and Cochise. Geronimo surrendered in 1886 but others carried on the fight until 1900
1861 – 1861 – 1865: The American Civil War.
1862 – U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
1865 – The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy
1873 – Campaign against Apache Indians in Arizona and New Mexico
1887 – Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
1893 – Navajo war against white settlers. Northwestern New Mexico and Northeastern Arizona
1969 – All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
1979 – American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed