Published on June 29, 2013 by Casey
The history and the way of life of Illinois Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians. For a comprehensive History timeline regarding the early settlers and colonists refer to the Colonial America Time Period. The history of the State and of its Native American Indians is detailed in a simple History Timeline. This Illinois Indian History Timeline provides a list detailing dates of conflicts, wars and battles involving Illinois Indians and their history. We have also detailed major events in US history which impacted the history of the Illinois Indians.
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10,000 B.C. – Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic large-game hunters of animals including the Great Mammoth.
7500 BC – Eastern Woodland Culture of Fisher Hunters begins. Permanent houses and farming
7000 BC – Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools
1700 BC – Mound Builders culture, a feature of many Woodland tribes
1000 – Mississippian Culture established. This was the last of the mound-building cultures of North America in Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States
1673 – Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) and Louis Joliet (1645-1700) explore Illinois
1680 – René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643-1687) and Henry de Tonty (1650-1704) build Fort Crèvecoeur
1680 – The Iroquois entered the region to attack the Illinois Confederacy tribes. Many were killed in the conflict.
1712 – The First French Fox War (1712–1716) began when Fox, Kickapoo, and Mascouten attacked Fort Pontchartrain
1728 – The Second Fox War (1728–1733), the Fox were reduced to 500 by French troops and Indian allies. The Fox tribe join the Sauk Tribe after defeat
1754 – 1754 – 1763: The French Indian War is won by Great Britain against the French so ending the series of conflicts known as the French and Indian Wars
1763 – Treaty of Paris
1764 – Pontiac’s Rebellion broke out in the Ohio River Valley. The Ottawa Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) to lead a rebellion of a number of tribes against the British
1775 – 1775 – 1783 – The American Revolution.
1776 – July 4, 1776 – United States Declaration of Independence
1800′s – Conflict erupts between settlers and Native Indians including the Illinois, Iroquois, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Kaskaskia, Miami, Shawnee, Sauk and Fox tribes throughout the 1800′s
1803 – Kaskaskia Indians cede nearly all of their lands
1803 – The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land
1812 – 1812 – 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America’s Independence
1812 – Potawatomi Indians massacre at Fort Dearborn
1813 – Peoria War was a battle between the U. S. Army, settlers and the Native American tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo tribes in the Peoria area of Illinois. Their villages were attacked and the tribes left the area. Battles and conflicts resumed in the Winnebago War of 1827 and the Black Hawk War of 1832.
1827 – Winnebago War (Fever River expedition) against the Winnebago Indians in Illinois
1829 – Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi cede lands
1830 – Indian Removal Act
1832 – Black Hawk War occurred in Northern Illinois, Michigan, Southwestern Wisconsin including the Battle of Bad Axe
1832 – Department of Indian Affairs established
1839 – Cherokee Indians pass through Illinois on the “Trail of Tears” to Oklahoma
1861 – 1861 – 1865: The American Civil War.
1862 – U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
1865 – The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy
1887 – Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
1885 – The consolidated Peoria, Kaskaskia, Wea, and Piankashaw numbered only 149
1969 – All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
1979 – American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed