- 1795-1840 New York state and local governments entered into 26 treaties and several purchase agreements with the Oneida Indians to acquire all but 32 of 270,000 acres. Almost none of the transactions were approved by Congress as required by a 1790 law.
(SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)
dna testing, dna ancestry testing, ancestry, genealogy, indian genealogy records, paternity testing, turquoise jewelry, native american jewelry
- 1804 Mar 26, Congress ordered the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi to Louisiana.
- 1804 Aug 31, Louis and Clark held a council with local Sioux Indian chiefs in what is now eastern North Dakota.
(ON, 4/12, p.9)
- 1804 Oct 26, Lewis and Clark accepted an invitation to camp for the winter near a cluster of villages inhabited by the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.
(ON, 4/12, p.10)
- 1804 Nov, Lewis and Clark hired French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter, with the understanding that Sacagawea, who was only about 16 and pregnant, would come along to interpret the Shoshone language. She and another woman had been purchased by Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
(HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)
- 1805 Feb 11, At Fort Mandan ND Sacajawea (16), the Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth to a son, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife. Sacagawea, the young Native American girl who aided the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was of the Lemhi Shoshones, who made their home in what is now southeastern Idaho and southwestern Montana. About 1800 Sacagawea was captured by a Hidatsa raiding party at the Three Forks of the Missouri River. Sometime in 1804, she and another woman were purchased by French-Canadian fur trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, who lived among the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians, to be his wives.
(HN, 2/11/99)(HNQ, 12/1/99)(AH, 2/05, p.17)
- 1805 Apr 7, The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their journey to the headwaters of the Missouri River.
(ON, 4/12, p.10)
- 1805 Aug 17, Sacagawea, while traveling with the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery, reunited with her brother Cameahwait, a Shoshoni Indian chief on the Lemhi River (Idaho).
(ON, 4/12, p.12)(http://sacajaweahome.com/august.htm)
- 1805 Aug 30, The Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery resumed their westward journey with 29 horses and 6 guides provided by Shoshoni Chief Cameahwait. They spent the next 4 weeks crossing the Bitterroot Mountains (Idaho).
(ON, 4/12, p.12)
- 1805 Sep 23, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike paid $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that would be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling.
- 1811 Nov 7, Gen. William Henry Harrison won a battle against the Shawnee Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in the Indiana territory. Tenskwatawa, the brother of Shawnee leader Tecumseh, was engaged in the Battle of the Wabash, aka Battle of Tippecanoe, in spite of his brother’s strict admonition to avoid it. The battle near the Tippecanoe River with the regular and militia forces of Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison, took place while Tecumseh was out of the area seeking support for a united Indian movement. The battle, which was a nominal victory for Harrison’s forces, effectively put an end to Tecumseh’s dream of a pan-Indian confederation. Harrison’s leadership in the battle also provided a useful campaign slogan for his presidential bid in 1840.
(HFA, ‘96, p.46)(HNQ, 5/28/98)(HN, 11/7/98)
- 1813 Aug 30, Creek Indians massacred over 500 whites at Fort Mims Alabama.
- 1813 Oct 5, The Battle of Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812. Known as the Battle of the Thames in the United States, the US victory over British and Indian forces near Ontario at the village of Moraviantown on the Thames River is know in Canada as the Battle of Moraviantown. Some 600 British regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under English General and Shawnee leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated by US forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle.
(HN, 10/5/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p.378)
- 1813 Oct 15, During the land defeat of the British on the Thames River in Canada, the Indian chief Tecumseh, now a brigadier general with the British Army (War of 1812), was killed. [see Oct 5]
- 1813 Nov 3, American troops destroy the Indian village of Tallushatchee in the Mississippi Valley. US troops under Gen Coffee destroyed an Indian village at Talladega, Ala.
(HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)
- 1814 Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men.
(SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)
- 1814 Mar 29, In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians. [see Mar 27]
- 1814 Jul 22, Five Indian tribes in Ohio made peace with the United States and declared war on Britain.
- 1814 Aug 9, Andrew Jackson and the Creek Indians signed the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving the whites 23 million acres of Mississippi Creek territory. This ended Indian resistance in the region and opened the doors to pioneers after the conclusion of the War of 1812.
(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 8/13/99)
- 1816 Jul 27, US troops destroyed the Seminole Fort Apalachicola, to punish the Indians for harboring runaway slaves.
- 1817 Nov 20, 1st Seminole War began in Florida. [see Nov 27]
- 1817 Nov 27, US soldiers attacked a Florida Indian village and began the Seminole War. [see Nov 20]
- 1818 Apr 7, Gen. Andrew Jackson captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
- 1818 Apr 18, A regiment of Indians and blacks was defeated at the Battle of Suwann, in Florida, ending the first Seminole War.
- 1818 Oct 19, US and Chickasaw Indians signed a treaty.
- 1819 Mar 3, The Civilization Fund Act was created by the United States legislature to encourage activities of benevolent societies in providing education for Native Americans and also authorized an annuity to stimulate the “civilization process.”
- 1822 Feb 9, The American Indian Society organized.
- 1824 Mar 11, The U.S. War Department created the Bureau of Indian Affairs. A lifelong friend and trusted aide of Ulysses S. Grant, Ely Parker rose to the top in two worlds, that of his native Seneca Indian tribe and the white man’s world at large. He went on to become the first Indian to lead the Bureau.
- 1825 Jan 27, Congress approved Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the “Trail of Tears.”
- 1825 Feb 12, Creek Indian treaty signed. Tribal chiefs agreed to turn over all their land in Georgia to the government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
- 1825 The Bureau of Indian Affairs began as an office of the War Department that dealt with what white Americans saw as the “Indian problem.”
(SFC, 9/9/00, p.A3)
- 1827 Nov 15, Creek Indians lost all their property in US.
- 1828 Feb 21, The first issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, the 1st American Indian newspaper in US, was printed, both in English and in the newly invented Cherokee alphabet.
(HN, 2/21/98)(MC, 2/21/02)
- 1828 May 6, The Cherokee Indians were forced to sign a treaty giving up their Arkansas Reservation for a new home in what later became Oklahoma. This led to a split in the tribe as one group moved to Oklahoma and others stayed behind and became known as the Lost Cherokees.
(Econ, 3/11/06, p.28)(http://digital.library.okstate.edu/KAPPLER/Vol2/treaties/che0288.htm)
- 1829-1837 Andrew Jackson was President of the US. In 2001 Robert V. Remini authored “Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars.”
(A&IP, ESM, p.96b, photo)(SSFC, 7/15/01, DB p.63)
- 1830 May 28, Congress authorized Indian removal from all states to western prairie.
- 1830 Jul 15, Three Indian tribes, Sioux, Sauk & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.
- 1830 Pres. Andrew Jackson forced Thomas L. McKenney from his job as the 1st US superintendent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Jackson disagreed with McKenney’s opinion that “the Indian was, in his intellectual and moral structure, our equal.”
(WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)
- 1832 Apr 8, Some 300 American troops of the 6th Infantry left Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, to confront the Sauk Indians in what would become known as the Black Hawk War.
- 1832 Aug 2, Troops under General Henry Atkinson massacred Sauk Indian men, women and children who were followers of Black Hawk at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin. Black Hawk himself finally surrendered three weeks later, bringing the Black Hawk War to an end.
- 1832 Aug 27, Black Hawk, leader of Sauk-Indians, gave himself up.
- 1832 Oct 14, Blackfeet Indians attacked American Fur Company trappers near Montana’s Jefferson River, killing one.
- 1834 Jun 30, Congress passed the final Indian Intercourse Act. In addition to regulating relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as “Indian country”. This land was described as being “…all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas…” This is the land that became known as Indian Territory. Oklahoma was declared Indian Territory.
(SFCM, 3/9/08, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Intercourse_Act)
- 1834 Mexico granted Don Salvio Pacheco 18,000 acres in northern California known as Monte del Diablo, which included what would later became Concord and Walnut Creek. The family later donated land to the government for roads and public buildings. The area was originally inhabited by the Bolbones Indians.
(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A13)(SFC, 7/17/06, p.B5)
- 1835 Aug 18, The last Pottawatomie Indians left Chicago.
- 1835 Dec 30, Cherokees were forced to move across the Mississippi River after gold was discovered in Georgia. A minority faction of Cherokee agreed to the emigration of the whole tribe from their lands by signing the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota resulted in the cession of all Cherokee land to the U.S. and provided for the transportation of the Cherokee Indians to land beyond the Mississippi. The removal of the Cherokee was completed by 1838.
(NG, 5/95, p.86)(HNQ, 6/21/98)(MC, 12/30/01)
- 1836 May 19, Comanche warriors in Texas attacked Fort Parker and kidnapped Cynthia Ann Parker (9) and several others. She was recaptured by whites in 1860 and was forced to live among whites until her death in 1871. Her son Quanah (d.1911) escaped capture and grew up to become leader of the Quahadi, the most feared subset of the Comanche. In 2010 S.C. Gwynne authored “Empire of the Southern Moon: Quanah Parker and the Rise of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History.”
(Econ, 6/19/10, p.85)(www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/CynthiaAnnParker.htm)
- 1837 Oct 1, A treaty was made with the Winnebago Indians.
- 1837 Oct 21, During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), under a flag of truce during peace talks, U.S. troops under Gen. Thomas S. Jesup (1788-1860) sieged the Indian Seminole Chief Osceola in Florida and sent to a jail in North Carolina, where he later died. Jesup’s trickery outraged the American public.
(HN, 10/21/98)(DoW, 1999, p.435)
- 1837 Dec 25, In the Battle of Okeechobee US forces defeated the Seminole Indians.
- 1837 A treaty with the Chippewa Indians in Minnesota guaranteed their right to hunt and fish and gather wild rice on territory relinquished to the federal government.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A8)
- 1837 In California Jose Maria Amador led a “recapturing expedition.” They found and murdered 200 Indians.
(SFC, 12/31/00, BR p.12)
- 1837-1844 Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall published their 3-volume work: “The Indian Tribes of North American.”
(WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)
- 1838 Aug, Some 12,000 Cherokee Indians in 13 ragtag parties followed the Trail of Tears on a 116-day journey west 800 miles to eastern Oklahoma. Estimates have placed the death toll in camps and in transit as high as 4,000. They followed the trail already set by the Choctaw out of Mississippi, the Creek from Alabama, the Chickasaw from Arkansas and Mississippi, and the Seminole from Florida.
(NG, 5/95, p.82)(www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html)
- 1838 A smallpox epidemic north of San Francisco killed over 60,000 Indians.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
- 1842 Aug 14, Seminole War ended and the Indians were moved from Florida to Oklahoma.
- 1846 US Army forces under the command of John C. Fremont conducted a murderous attack on Sacramento River Maidu Indian villages.
- 1847 Jan 24, 1,500 New Mexican Indians and Mexicans were defeated by US Col. Price.
- 1847 Nov 29, A small group of Cayuse Indians assaulted the Whitman Mission, Walla Walla, Washington, at the time sheltering 74 people, most of them emigrants. The attackers killed 13 people, including Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. It temporarily ended Protestant missionary efforts in the Oregon country. The Whitman Creek massacre set off the Cayuse War (1848).
- 1847 Miners of Don Miguel Peralta discovered gold about this time in the Superstition Mountains of Arizona. His family abandoned the claim after their mining party was massacred by Apache Indians.
(AHHT, 10/02, p.16)(AH, 10/02, p.16)(www.ghostradiox.com/qfg/legend_peralta.asp)
- 1850 Sep 27, The US Donation land Act was enacted. It allowed Americans to stake claims that would become valid after treaties were negotiated with Indian tribes and ratified by Congress.
(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.G2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donation_Land_Claim_Act)
- 1850 Laws in California were passed that allowed the enslavement of Indians.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
- 1851 Jul 23, Sioux Indians and US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.
- 1851 The Fort Laramie Treaty was signed between the US government and the Sioux Indians. The Sioux pledged not to harass the wagon trains traveling the Oregon Trail in exchange for a $50,000 annuity. The treaty did not last long. Some 12,000 American Indians gathered at Fort Laramie for a peace council with the US. The government agreed that 12 million acres of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Indians would remain free of settlement (eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming and western North Dakota). In 1949 Congress authorized a forced relocation to build the Garrison Dam in North Dakota. In 1986 Martin Cross won a settlement of $149.2 million for the unjust taking of reservation land. In 2004 Paul VanDevelder authored “Coyote Warrior: One Man, Three Tribes, and the Trial that Forged a Nation.”
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)
- 1851 California Governor Peter Burnett said that unless the Indians were sent east of the Sierras, “a war of extermination would continue to be waged until the Indian race should become extinct.”
(HN, 4/29/00)(WW, 6/99)
- 1851 Fewer than 100,000 Indians remained in California.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
- 1852 The Hopi people of northern Arizona arranged for a diplomatic packet to reach Pres. Fillmore via a delegation of 5 prominent men from the Tewas of Tesuque Pueblo in New Mexico, who sought legal protection from Anglo and Hispanic settlers.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.26)
- 1854 In Keshena Falls, Wisconsin, the Menomonee (people of the wild rice) Chiefs Oshkosh and Keshena met with federal Indian agents and agreed to retain only 275,000 acres from their original 9 ½ million acres. As part of the settlement the chiefs and their followers were promised eternal government protection. In 1954 Congress voted to withdraw that support.
(NG, Aug., 1974, p.235)
- 1854 White settlers in Del Norte County, Ca., ambushed and killed 30 Tolowa Indians at the Etculet village on Lake Earl.
(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B1)
- 1855 The US government signed a treaty with some American Indians that gave them permanent rights to their existing lands. The Makah tribe of Washington secured a right to hunt whales in exchange for ceding title to their land. In 1972 the Marine Mammals Protection Act prohibited the slaughter of whales without a permit.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, Par. p.5)(SFC,10/24/97, p.A9)(SSFC, 7/13/08, p.E4)
- 1855 Nez Perce elders agreed to sell most of their land to the US government. They retained some 10 thousand square miles as a reservation in the area where Washington, Oregon and Idaho meet. Gold was soon discovered in the area and in 1863 the US government called for a new deal.
(ON, 3/04, p.1)
- 1856 Aug 11, A band of rampaging settlers in California killed four Yokut Indians. The settlers had heard unproven rumors of Yokut atrocities.
- 1856 Apr 28, Yokut Indians repelled an attack on their land by 100 would-be Indian fighters in California.
- 1856 Apr 29, During the Tule River War Yokut Indians repelled a second attack by the ‘Petticoat Rangers,’ a band of civilian Indian fighters-some wearing body armor-at Four Creeks, California. The Yokuts lived along the shores of Tulare Lake in the Central Valley, which disappeared by 1900 due to water diversion and farming.
(HN, 4/29/00)(WW, 6/99)
- 1857 Sep 11, The Mountain Meadows Massacre of the Fancher emigrant wagon train in Utah Territory was carried out by Mormons fearful of an impending invasion by the US Army. Church patriarch and adopted son of Brigham Young, John Doyle Lee, offered safe passage to the nearly 150 men, women and children on the Fancher train from Arkansas crossing Mormon Utah bound for California, if they left their weapons, livestock and wagons behind-ostensibly to appease hostile Indians. All but the youngest children were slaughtered. Lee, who first blamed the massacre on Paiute Indians, was excommunicated in 1870 and tried, convicted and executed in 1877 for his role in the killings. 120 settlers were killed; 17 children, all under 7, were spared. In 2002 Will Bagley authored “Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows.” In 2011 the site was dedicated as a national historic landmark.
(SFC, 10/23/02, p.H4)(AP, 9/11/07)(SFC, 9/12/11, p.A4)
- 1858 Feb 19, Leschi, a Nisqually American Indian leader from the Puget Sound region, was hanged a mile east of Fort Steilacoom. On June 10, 1857, he had been convicted of the murder of Abrams Moses, and was sentenced to hang. Appeals to the Supreme Court delayed the initial hanging. In 2004 seven judges at a Historical Court of Inquiry and Justice unanimously decided that regardless of who shot Moses, “The killing was a legitimate act of war, immune from prosecution.” Consequently, Leschi was declared “exonerated” of Abrams Moses’ murder. In 2011 Richard Kluger authored “The Bitter Waters of Medicine Creek: A Tragic Clash Between White and Native America.”
(http://forejustice.org/wc/chief_leschi/chief_leschi.htm)(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.G1)
- 1860 Feb 26, White settlers massacred a band of Wiyot Indians at the village of Tuluwat on Indian Island near Eureka, Ca. At least 60 women, children and elders were killed. Bret Harte, newspaper reporter in Arcata, fed the news to newspapers in San Francisco.
(SFC, 2/28/04, p.D1)
- 1860 Apr 30, Navaho Indians attacked Fort Defiance (Canby).
- 1860 Jun 9, The first dime novel: “Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter,” written by Ann Sophia Stephens (1813-1886), was published by Beadle and Adams in NYC.
- 1860 More laws in California were passed that allowed the enslavement of Indians.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
- 1860-1940 Silver Horn, artist, was a Kiowa Indian born in what later became Oklahoma. His work included ledger-book drawings and hide paintings that recorded Kiowa history and culture.
(SFC, 4/19/00, p.A28)
- 1861 Feb 7, The general council of the Choctaw Indian nation adopted a resolution declaring allegiance with the South “in the event a permanent dissolution of the American Union takes place.”
- 1861 Feb 18, At Fort Wise, Kansas, Indian tribes ceded possessions, enough to constitute two great States of the Union, retaining only a small district for themselves on both sides of the Arkansas river, which included the country around Fort Lyon.
- 1861 Apr 30, President Lincoln ordered Federal Troops to evacuate Indian Territory.
- 1861 Aug 12, Texas rebels were attacked by Apaches.
- 1862 Aug 8, Minnesota’s 5th Infantry fought the Sioux Indians in Redwood, Minn., and 24 soldiers were killed.
(SFC, 2/7/03, p.A23)
- 1862 Aug 18, A Sioux Uprising began uprising in Minnesota. It resulted in more than 800 white settlers dead and 38 Sioux Indians condemned and hanged. The Minnesota Uprising began when four young Sioux murdered five white settlers at Acton. The Santee Sioux, who lived on a long, narrow reservation on the south side of the Minnesota River, were reacting to broken government promises and corrupt Indian agents. a military court sentenced 303 Sioux to die, but President Abraham Lincoln reduced the list. The 38 hangings took place on December 26, 1862, in Mankato, Minn.
(MC, 8/18/02)(HNQ, 1/4/00)
- 1862 Sep 21, 300 Indians were sentenced to hang in Mankato, Minnesota.
- 1862 Aug 22, Santee Sioux attacked Fort Ridgely.
- 1862 Dec 6, President Lincoln ordered the hanging of 39 of the 303 convicted Indians who participated in the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota. They were to be hanged on Dec. 26. The Dakota Indians were going hungry when food and money from the federal government was not distributed as promised. They led a massacre that left over 400 white people dead. The uprising was put down and 300 Indians were sentenced to death. Pres. Lincoln reduced the number to 39, who were hanged. The government then nullified the 1851 treaty.
(WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A6)(HN, 12/6/98)
- 1862 Dec 26, 38 Santee Sioux were hanged in Mankato, Minn., for their part in the Sioux Uprising.
- 1863 The US government paid a group of Nez Perce Indians $265,000 for some 6 million acres in the area of Lewiston, Oregon.
(ON, 3/04, p.1)
- 1863 The Treaty of Ruby Valley with the Western Shoshone Indians assured their ownership of property that later became a US nuclear test site. The treaty stated that the presence of US settlements will not negate Indian sovereignty.
(SFC, 7/12/97, p.E4)(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.7)
- 1864 May 15, In mid-May about daylight Major Downing succeeded in surprising the Cheyenne village of Cedar Bluffs, in a small canon about 60 miles north of the South Platte river. “We commenced shooting. I ordered the men to commence killing them. They lost, as I am informed, some 26 killed and 30 wounded. My own loss was one killed and one wounded. I burnt up their lodges and everything I could get hold of. I took no prisoners. We got out of ammunition and could not pursue them.”
- 1864 Nov 29, In retaliation for an Indian attack on a party of immigrants near Denver, 750 members of a Colorado militia unit, led by Colonel John M. Chivington, attacked an unsuspecting village of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians camped on Sand Creek in present-day Kiowa County. Some 300  Indians were killed in the attack, including women and children, many of whose bodies were mutilated. Ten soldiers died in the attack. The Sand Creek Massacre, as this incident came to be called, provoked a savage struggle between Indians and the white settlers. It also generated two Congressional investigations into the actions of Chivington and his men. The House Committee on the Conduct of the War concluded that Chivington had “deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the varied and savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty.”
(HNPD, 11/29/98)(HN, 11/29/98)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A9)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.C13)
- 1864-1865 Army Col. Kit Carson, directed by Brig. Gen. James Carleton, forced the move of some 9,000 Dineh Navajo from Canyon de Chelly in Arizona to the Bosque Redondo reservation near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. About half the people survived in what came to be known as the Long Walk. In 2006 Hampton sides authored “Blood and Thunder: An epic of the American West,” an account of the Navaho move.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
- 1865 Jan 7, Cheyenne and Sioux warriors attacked Julesburg, Colo., in retaliation for the Sand Creek Massacre.
- 1865 In California a surprise attack by settlers wiped out nearly all the Indians of the Yahi tribe, south of Mt. Lassen. Remnants hid in the mountains for 40 years until there was but one survivor, Ishi, who emerged in 1911.
(SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1)
- 1865-1890 Wars against the native American Indians were fought during this period in the Pacific Northwest. In 2003 Peter Cozzens edited: “Eyewitnesses to the Indian Wars, 1865-1890: The Wars for the Pacific Northwest.”
(AH, 6/03, p.62)
- 1866 Jul, The Sioux war on the Powder river commenced. When it commenced General St. George Cook, in command at Omaha, forbade within the limits of his command the sale of arms and ammunition to Indians.
- 1866 Sep 1, Manuelito, the last Navaho chief, turned himself in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.
- 1866 Dec 21, Indians led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse killed Captain William J. Fetterman and 79 other men who had ventured out from Fort Phil Kearny to cut wood. U.S. Army Captain William J. Fetterman once boasted, “Give me 80 men and I’ll march through the whole Sioux nation!” When Lakota warriors under the overall leadership of Chief Red Cloud gathered around Fort Phil Kearny (in what is now Wyoming), Fetterman got command of his 80 men. Disobeying the orders of his commander, Colonel Henry B Carrington, not to proceed beyond the Lodge Trail Ridge, Fetterman pursued a band of retreating Indians–and rode right into a waiting trap, allegedly laid by the Ogallala warrior Crazy Horse. Fetterman, his executive officer and 78 troopers were wiped out.
(HNPD, 12/21/98)(HN, 12/21/98)
- 1866 Dec 26, Native American’s handed the U.S. Army their worst defeat prior to Little Big Horn at the Fetterman Fight in Powder River County in the Dakota territory. [see Dec 21]
- 1866 In California the Chico Courant newspaper called for the extermination of Indians.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)
- 1866 Pres. Andrew Johnson signed an executive order that removed the Shoalwater Bay Indians in Washington state from their villages and onto a 1-sq. mile reservation. By 2000 erosion took away over half the tribal land and miscarriages stood at 4 times the expected rate.
(SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A8)
- 1866 Freed Cherokee slaves were adopted into the tribe under a treaty with the US government. In 2007 the Cherokee Nation voted to revoke citizenship to descendants of the slaves.
(SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)
- 1867 Oct 21, Many leaders of the Kiowa, Comanche and Kiowa-Apache signed a peace treaty at Medicine Lodge, Kan. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
- 1868 Jan 7, A US Indian Peace Commission filed a report to the Pres. Johnson.
- 1868 Apr 29, The US government and the Sioux Indians signed another treaty that ended Red Cloud’s War, but it did not last long. The treaty at Fort Laramie (Wyoming) made the Black Hills part of the Great Sioux Reservation.
(www.suite101.com/lesson.cfm/17638/1146/8)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.37)(AH, 6/03, p.36)
- 1868 Sep 17, The Battle of Beecher’s Island began, in which Major George “Sandy” Forsyth and 50 volunteers held off 500 Sioux and Cheyenne in eastern Colorado.
- 1868 Nov 27, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer’s 7th Cavalry killed Chief Black Kettle (b.1801) and about 100 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) on the Washita River near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.
- 1868 Navaho Indians living under confinement near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, were allowed to return to their homelands in Arizona following a visit by Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman. Some 7,100 survivors of the 1864 Long Walk had been released onto a New Mexico reservation of 5,500 acres. The Navajo returned to Hopi land where 3.5 million acres, 1/6th of their former homeland, was returned.
(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)(SFEC, 5/4/97, z1 p.4)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
- 1870 Jan 1, In Texas Comanche Indians stole Adolph Korn (10) near the settlement of Castell on the Llano River. The boy spent 3 years with the Indians and upon his return spoke only Comanche, ate raw meat and refused to sleep indoors.
(AH, 6/07, p.60)
- 1870 Jan 23, American army forces, looking for Mountain Chief’s band of hostile Blackfoot Indians, fell instead upon Heavy Runner’s peaceable Piegan band in Montana and killed 173, many of them women and children.
(www.legendsofamerica.com/NA-Blackfoot.html)(SSFC, 12/25/05, p.M2)
- 1870 Jun 9, Washington: Pres Grant met with Sioux chief Red Cloud.
- 1871 Mar 3, Congress passed the Indian Appropriation Act, which revoked the sovereignty of Indian nations and made Native Americans wards of the American government. The act eliminated the necessity of treaty negotiating and established the policy that tribal affairs could be managed by the U.S. government without tribal consent.
- 1871 Apr 30, Anglo and Mexican vigilantes killed 118 Apaches at Camp Grant, Arizona, and kidnapped 28 children.
- 1871 May 17, Gen. Sherman, Indian fighter, escaped in ambulance from the Comanche.
- 1871 Aug, Joseph became chief of Nez Perce Indians in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon.
(ON, 3/04, p.1)
- 1871 Brit Johnson, a black Texas ranch foreman, was killed by Kiowa raiders. His home life had been shattered in 1864 when an Indian raiding party killed his son and captured his wife along with 2 of their other children. He reportedly ransomed back his family in 1865 and continued searching for other stolen children before he was killed. Author Alan Le May (1899-1964) later used his story as a model in his novel “The Searchers” (1954).
(AH, 6/07, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Searchers_%28film%29)
- 1872 Aug 14, Chief Joseph met in council with some 40 settlers in the Wallowa Valley and ordered them to leave the Nez Perce Indian land.
(ON, 3/04, p.2)
- 1872 Oct 12, Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise (d.1874) signed a peace treaty with Special Indian Commissioner, General Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909), in the Arizona Territory.
(HN, 10/12/98)(ON, 4/07, p.8)
- 1872 Dec 28, A U.S. Army force defeated a group of Apache warriors at Salt River Canyon, Arizona Territory, with 57 Indians killed but only one soldier.
- 1872 The Osage Indians purchased close to 2,300 square miles in the Oklahoma Territory from the Cherokee and created the Osage Reservation.
(SFCM, 3/9/08, p.20)
- 1868 Navaho Indians in New Mexico were allowed to return to their homelands in Arizona.
(SSFC, 1/7/01, p.T9)
- 1872 Nov 28, The Modoc War of 1872-73 began in Siskiyou County, northern California when fighting broke out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led by Captain James Jackson. At Lava Beds National Monument in northern California 52  Modoc warriors held off over 1,000 US Army troops for five months. The 4 year conflict was described in the 1997 book “Hell with the Fire Out” by Arthur Quinn, a re-creation of the war from eye-witness accounts.
(SFC,10/16/96,zz1p.1)(SFEC, 4/6/97, BR p.5)(SFEC, 10/25/98, p.T9)(HN, 11/28/98)
- 1873 Jun 16, Pres. Grant signed an executive order that permitted Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce to live in the Wallowa Valley, Oregon, to perpetuity.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, Par. p.5)(ON, 3/04, p.2)
- 1873 Oct 3, Captain Jack and three other Modoc Indians were hanged in Oregon for the murder of General Edward Canby.
- 1873 Nov 19, James Reed and two accomplices robbed the Watt Grayson family of $30,000 in the Choctaw Nation.
- 1874 Jun 8, Cochise (b.~1810), Chiricahua Apache war chief (his name meant “his nose”) and leader of the Chokonen band, died on a reservation in the Dragoon Mountains in southeastern Arizona.
- 1874 Jul 2, Colonel Custer departed from Fort Abraham Lincoln with some 1,000 soldiers and 70 Indian scouts on a 1200 mile expedition to chart the Black Hills of eastern Wyoming western South Dakota, land which belonged to the Sioux. The expedition returned on August 30.
(AH, 6/03, p.37)
- 1874 Aug 2, Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of western South Dakota during an expedition led by Colonel Custer. The land belonged to the Sioux but was invaded by prospectors. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull retaliated.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(AH, 6/03, p.37)
- 1874 Sep 28, Colonel Ranald Mackenzie (d.1889) raided a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas, slaughtering 2,000 of their horses.
(HN, 9/28/98)(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.53)
- 1874 Oct 4, Kiowa leader Santanta, known as “the Orator of the Plains,” surrenders in Darlington, Texas. He was later sent to the state penitentiary, where he committed suicide October 11, 1878.
- 1874 Capt. James Cass of Bristol, England, built a wharf and pier named Cass Landing on the north end of Morro Bay, Ca., to facilitate the loading of ships carrying lumber, staples and dairy products between the Central Coast and San Francisco. It became the town of Cayucos, carved from the Morro y Cayucos Rancho. The name was after a unique plank canoe (cayuco) invented by the local Chumash Indians.
(SSFC, 1/4/09, p.E6)
- 1874-1875 The Gatling gun was first used against the Comanche Indians at the Battle of Red River in the Texas Panhandle.
(SFC, 3/18/00, p.B4)
- 1875 Jun, Nez Perce Chief Joseph learned that had rescinded the executive order of 1873 and reopened the Wallowa Valley to white settlement.
(ON, 3/04, p.2)
- 1875 The Quahadi Comanches, led by Quanah Parker (c.1852-1911), gave up their fight and settled on Indian Territory in Oklahoma after hunters slaughtered the great buffalo herds of the Texas panhandle.
(Econ, 6/19/10, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quanah_Parker)
- 1876 Mar 17, Gen. Crook destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
- 1876 Jun 17, General George Crook’s command was attacked and bested on the Rosebud River by 1,500 Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Crazy Horse.
- 1876 Jun 25, In the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana, Gen. George A. Custer and some 250 men in his 7th Cavalry were massacred by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. To crush the Plains Indians and drive them onto reservations, Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and more than 600 7th Cavalrymen and Indian scouts advanced on an Indian encampment in the Little Bighorn Valley of Montana. Custer’s main concern was to keep the Indians from escaping, but on this day, he faced the biggest alliance of hostile Plains Indians–mostly Sioux and Cheyenne–ever gathered in one place. Custer and his entire personal command, about 210 soldiers, were wiped out. The site is near a region where paleontologist Prof. Edward Drinker Cope dug for dinosaur fossils just a few days after the massacre. Custer and his cavalrymen had attacked an encampment of 2,000 to 4,000 Lakota, Cheyenne and other Indians. Up to 300 Indians possessed Henry and Winchester repeating rifles.
(WSJ, 11/1/94, p.1)(SFC, 6/28/96, p.A5)(AP, 6/25/97)(HNPD, 6/25/99)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.82)
- 1876 Jul 17, At Warbonnet Creek, Nebraska, Buffalo Bill Cody took the scalp of Cheyenne Chief Yellow Hair (Yellow Hand) following a duel.
(http://tinyurl.com/a4ja2)(WSJ, 12/13/05, p.D8)
- 1876 Aug 15, US law removed Indians from Black Hills after gold find. Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led their warriors to protect their lands from invasion by prospectors following the discovery of gold. This led to the Great Sioux Campaign staged from Fort Laramie. Gold was discovered in Deadwood in the Dakota territory by Quebec brothers Fred and Moses Manuel. The mine was incorporated in California on Nov 5, 1877, as the Homestake Mining Company.
(HT, 3/97, p.43)(WSJ, 1/5/00, p.CA1)(MC, 8/15/02)
- 1876 Sep, Sitting Bull, a legendary Hunkpapa Sioux chief and medicine man, led an escape to Canada in the vengeful aftermath of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Even though he had not fought in the June 25 massacre, the medicine man was considered a threat by white authorities because his visions of victory had encouraged the uprising. In 1881 famine forced Sitting Bull’s band back to a reservation in the United States. Throughout the mid-1880s, Sitting Bull won international fame as the prototype of the American Indian when he joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show on tour. Sitting Bull returned to the reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, where he was killed in 1890 during a struggle with Indian police.
- 1876 Nov 25, Colonel Ronald MacKenzie destroyed Cheyenne Chief Dull Knife’s village, in the Bighorn Mountains near the Red Fork of the Powder River, during the so-called Great Sioux War.
- 1876 In Canada the Indian Act was enacted by the Parliament under the provisions of Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, which provides Canada’s federal government exclusive authority to legislate in relation to “Indians and Lands Reserved for Indians.” The statute concerns registered Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
(Econ, 3/28/09, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Act)
- 1877 May 6, Chief Crazy Horse surrendered to U.S. troops in Nebraska. Crazy Horse brought General Custer to his end.
- 1877 May 7, Indian chief Sitting Bull entered Canada with a trail of Indians after the Battle of Little Big Horn.
- 1877 May 14, General Howard gave Chief Joseph and the Nez Perces 30 days to leave the Wallowa Valley and settle at Lapwai on the upper Clearwater River.
(ON, 3/04, p.5)
- 1877 Jun 14, Two Nez Perce Indians killed 3 white men.
(ON, 3/04, p.5)
- 1877 Jun 15, The US Army under Gen’l. Oliver Otis Howard began to pursue some 800 Nez Perce. The Nez Perce had been ordered to leave the Valley of the Winding Waters (Wallowa Valley) in Oregon.
(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(SFEC, 6/15/97, Par p.1)(SSFC, 7/9/06, p.G4)
- 1877 Jun 16, The Nez Perce War began in the northwestern US. The First Squadron of the First Regiment, the oldest cavalry unit in the US, fought the Apaches and the Nez Perces.
(WUD, 1994, p.964)(WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)(ON, 3/04, p.5)
- 1877 Aug 10, Col. John Gibbon slaughtered Nez-Perce Indians at Big Hole River.
- 1877 Aug 22, Nez Perce fled into Yellowstone National Park.
- 1877 Sep 5, The great Sioux warrior Crazy Horse, a cousin of Kicking Bear, was fatally bayoneted at age 36 by a soldier at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. In 1975 Stephen Ambrose authored “Crazy Horse and Custer.” In 2002 Ambrose was accused of plagiarizing from the 1955 book “Custer” by Jay Monaghan (d.1980). In 1999 Larry McMurtry authored the biography “Crazy Horse” for the Penguin Lives series. In 2004 Joseph M. Marshall III authored “The Journey of Crazy Horse: A Lakota History.” In 2006 Kingsley M. Bray authored “Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life.”
(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.14)(HN, 12/24/99)(SFC, 1/9/02, p.A2)(SSFC, 12/5/04, p.E5)(AH, 10/07, p.62)
- 1877 Oct 5, Nez Perce Chief Joseph and 418 survivors were captured in the Bear Paw mountains and forced into reservations in Kansas. They surrendered in Montana Territory, after a 1,700-mile trek to reach Canada fell 40 miles short. Nez Perce Chief Joseph surrendered to General O.O. Howard and Colonel Nelson Miles at the Bear Paw ravine in Montana Territory, saying, “Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more, forever.” The retreat had lasted three months and left 120 Nez Perces dead. Miles had found and surrounded the Nez Perce camp with the help of Sioux and Cheyenne scouts. Many whites, including Howard, admired the Nez Perces’ fighting ability and Chief Joseph himself, who was considered humane and eloquent. He died in 1904.
(HFA, ’96, p.40)(SFC, 6/13/97, p.A13)(HNPD, 10/5/98)(HN, 10/5/98)
- 1877 Oct 17, Brigadier General Alfred Terry met with Sitting Bull in Canada to discuss the Indians’ return to the United States.
- 1877 Sep 5, The great Sioux warrior Crazy Horse, [Tashunka Witko], was fatally bayoneted at age 36  by a soldier in a (US) Army jail at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. In 1999 Larry McMurtry authored the biography “Crazy Horse” for the Penguin Lives series.
(HN, 9/5/98)(SFEC, 2/7/99, Par p.14)(MC, 9/5/01)
- 1878 Cheyenne Indians fled to the Powder River home in Wyoming. The Howard Fast novel “Freedom Road” (1941) told their story.
(SFC, 3/13/03, p.A21)
- 1879 Sep 29, Dissatisfied Ute Indians killed Agent Nathan Meeker and nine others in the “Meeker Massacre.”
- 1879 Lt. Col. Richard Henry Pratt persuaded Washington to hand over the mothballed Carlisle military barracks in Pennsylvania for use as a school for American Indians. In the early 20th century the school became a football powerhouse, beating Army in 1912. In 1918 the school was turned into a hospital to receive soldiers wounded in WW I.
(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)
- 1880 Oct 14, Apache leader Victorio was slain in Mexico. [see Oct 15]
- 1880 Oct 15, Victorio, feared leader of the Minbreno Apache, was killed by Mexican troops in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. [see Oct 14]
- 1880 Pueblo Chochiti men led anthropologist Adolph F.A. Bandolier to Frijoles Canyon in New Mexico. Bandolier later authored the novel on Pueblo life called “The Delightmakers.” Cliff dwelling in the area were preserved (1916) in a national park named after Bandelier.
(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D7)
- 1881 Jul 20, Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops.
(AP, 7/20/97)(HN, 7/20/98)
- 1881 The only recorded 19th-century incident in which Indian scouts turned against the U.S. Army occurred at Cibicue Creek in Arizona Territory. At Cibicue Creek, White Mountain Apache scouts were asked to campaign against their own kin, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the mutinous scouts were later court-martialed and executed.
- 1882 The US government confined the Havasupai Indians to a 518-acre reservation in Havasu Canyon, Arizona.
(SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)
- 1883 Nov 3, U.S. Supreme Court declared American Indians to be “dependent aliens.”
- 1883 The US Supreme Court ruled that the Dakota Territory court had no jurisdiction in a case in which a member of the Lakota nation killed a fellow member on tribal land. The decision overturned a death sentence and effectively gave exclusive jurisdiction for crimes to tribes. In 1885 US Congress passed the Major Crimes Act taking away the tribes’ authority to prosecute serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and rape.
(WSJ, 8/13/07, p.A12)
- 1884 Nov, The novel “Ramona” by Helen Hunt Jackson was published. It was about a love affair between a half-Indian girl and a Luisea Indian in southern California. It also served a covert tract on Indian oppression in America. In 1990 Valerie Sherer Mathes published “Helen Hunt Jackson and Her Indian Reform Legacy.” In 1998 Mathes edited: “The Indian Reform Letters of Helen Hunt Jackson.”
(SFEC, 12/20/98, BR p.5)
- 1884 Some 500 Blackfeet Indians in Montana died during the winter from starvation. Reservation agent John Young kept rations on hand for the white people.
(SSFC, 9/9/01, Par p.7)
- 1885 Mar 3, The United States Congress passed the Major Crimes Act (18 U.S.C. 1153). It placed seven major crimes under federal jurisdiction if they are committed by a Native American in Native territory regardless of whether the victim of the crime was Native.
- 1885 Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Perce were allowed to take up residence on the Colville reservation in northern Washington.
(ON, 3/04, p.5)
- 1886 Apr 11, General Nelson A. Miles arrived at Fort Bowie, Ariz., to begin his assignment to subjugate or destroy a band of Apaches led by Geronimo.
(ON, 10/06, p.1)
- 1886 Apr 27, A band of Apaches led by Geronimo attacked a ranch west of Fort Huachuca and killed 3 American citizens.
(ON, 10/06, p.1)
- 1886 Sep 4, Elusive Apache leader Geronimo (1829-1909) surrendered to General Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925) at Skeleton Canyon, Ariz. This ended the last major US-Indian war.
(HN, 9/4/98)(ON, 10/06, p.4)
- 1887 Feb 8, US Senator Henry Dawes sponsored the Dawes Severalty Act that authorized the survey of Indian territories in the West, in order that the commonly held tribal lands might be broken up into property allotments of 40 to 160 acres. The Dawes Act gave citizenship to Indians living apart from their tribe. Section Six stated that upon completion of a Land Patent process, the allotment holder will become a United States citizen and “be entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens.” Native Americans in general did not become citizens until the Snyder Act of 1924.
(NG, 5/95, p.91)(HN, 2/7/97)(AP, 6/2/97)
- 1887 Feb 8, The Allotment Act (Dawes Act) tried to break up tribal land ownership and awarded individual allotments. Trust accounts were established for both Indian tribes and individual American Indians. The lands were then held in trust, managed by the government and leased out to gas, oil and timber companies. The status of the accounts brought to question in 1996 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs could not account for about 15% of an estimated $450 million held for some 300,000 Indians. In 1999 a federal judge cited Sec. Bruce Babbitt and Robert Rubin in contempt for official deceit in accounting for the trusts that involved some 500,000 Indians.
(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A24)
- 1889 Mar 2, Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Bill, proclaiming unassigned lands in the public domain; the first step toward the famous Oklahoma Land Rush.
- 1889 Apr 22, The US federal government opened up the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory to the country’s first land run. The Oklahoma land rush officially started at noon as thousands of homesteaders staked claims.
(WSJ, 1/4/96, p.A-8)(AP, 4/22/97)(HN, 4/22/98)
- 1889 The Great Sioux Reservation of the Dakotas was dismembered into 6 parts.
(Econ, 10/15/05, p.34)
- 1889 The North Pacific Coast Railroad established a train station in Marin County called Manzanita atop a shell mound site previously settled by coastal Miwok Indians. In 1906 a liquor license was granted for an establishment there called Manzanita Villa and in 1916 a building was erected for a hotel and dance hall by Thomas, James and George Moore, SF liquor and cigar dealers. In 1947 new owners built a motel behind the building and renamed it “The Fireside.” In 1957 2 skeletons of American Indians were found during renovation. In 2008 the site was re-developed as a new affordable housing complex.
(SFC, 4/21/08, p.B2)
- 1889 Fr. James Chrysostom Bouchard, SJ, (b.1823), died. His French mother was adopted by the Delaware Lenni-Lenappi tribe after her parents were killed by members of the Comanche tribe. His father was Kistalwa, the Delaware tribe’s chief. After he moved to California his sermons attracted great crowds to the local Jesuit church. He traveled to many Western states, preaching in cities, towns, and mining camps. When he died, a New York newspaper called him “the Father Damen of the West.” In 1949 John Bernard McGloin authored “Eloquent Indian.”
(GenIV, Winter 04/05)(www.companymagazine.org/v154/preachers.html)
- 1889-1890 In South Dakota, Sioux warrior Kicking Bear became the leading spokesman for the new Indian religion, the “Ghost Dance,” which promised a return to ancient ways for a people disheartened by reservation life. Kicking Bear continued to resist the U.S. Army for several weeks after many of his fellow Sioux were killed in the Massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Kicking Bird was a Kiowa Chief. Bear’s Head was a Crow chief.
- 1890 Feb 10, Around 11 million acres, ceded to US by Sioux Indians, opened for settlement.
- 1890 Dec 15, Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull and 11 other tribe members were killed in Grand River, S.D., during a fracas with Indian police [US troops]. In an attempt to arrest Sitting Bull at his Standing Rock, South Dakota, cabin, shooting broke out and Lt. Bullhead shot the great Sioux leader. The killing of Indian leader Sitting Bull was one factor that led to the Wounded Knee Massacre on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The reservation was left in disarray when Sioux leader Sitting Bull was killed by Indian police.
(WUD, 1994, p.1680)(AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)(HNQ, 1/5/99)
- 1890 Dec 28, As Big Foot, another Sioux leader, led his tribe away from the reservation they were surrounded by 7th Cavalry troops at Wounded Knee Creek. The next morning, when the cavalry tried to disarm the Sioux, shots rang out and during the next 6 hours, 146 Sioux men, women and children, including Big Foot, were killed. The 7th Cavalry lost 30 killed.
- 1890 Dec 29, The last major conflict of the Indian wars took place at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota after Colonel James W. Forsyth of the 7th Cavalry tried to disarm Chief Big Foot and his followers. Seventy-year-old Sioux chief Big Foot was killed by the 7th U.S. Cavalry during the massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890. Three days later his body was found frozen where he had been killed. The South Dakota reservation had been left in disarray when Sioux leader Sitting Bull was killed by Indian police on December 15, and as Big Foot led his tribe away from the reservation on December 28, they were surrounded by 7th Cavalry troops. The next morning, when the cavalry tried to disarm the Sioux, shots broke out and during the next 6 hours, 146 Sioux men, women and children were killed. The 7th Cavalry lost 30 killed. The Wounded Knee massacre took place in South Dakota as some 300 Sioux Indians were killed by U.S. troops sent to disarm them.
(HFA, ’96, p.44)(AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(HNPD, 12/29/98)
- 1891-1899 During this period the Hopi of Arizona began to produce silver jewelry. A man named Sikyatala learned silversmithing from a Zuni man.
(NH, 11/1/04, p.30)
- 1891 Sep 18, Harriet Maxwell Converse was 1st white woman to become an Indian chief (her Indian name was Ga-is-wa-noh: the Watcher). She devoted herself to the study and preservation of Native American culture, was a staunch defender of Indian property rights during the 1880s.
- 1891 The San Manuel Band of Mission Indians had their homeland established in the foothills of the California San Bernardino Mountains by presidential executive order.
(SFEC, 2/13/00, p.D12)
- 1892 Oct 15, US government convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation (in the mountainous area of western Montana) for 50 cents per acre. Presidential proclamation opened this land to settlers.
- 1892 In New York state the Seneca Indians set up a treaty whereby non-Indian residents of Salamanca, a town built on the Seneca Nation of Indians’ Allegany Reservation, paid rent to the Seneca.
(SFC, 8/18/99, p.C14)
- 1893 Sep 16, Some 50,000 “Sooners” claimed land in the Cherokee Strip during the first day of the Oklahoma land rush.
(AP, 9/16/97)(HN, 9/16/98)
- 1894 Aug 16, Indian chiefs from the Sioux & Onondaga tribes met to urge their people to renounce Christianity and return to their old Indian faith.
- 1894 In Alaska the Cape Fox Tlingit Indians moved to Saxman after smallpox reduced their population from some 1000 to 200.
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W13)
- 1899 Edward H. Harriman, chairman of the Union Pacific RR, led a survey expedition along the Alaska coast with 126 passengers aboard a luxury steamer. The 2-month, 9,000 mile journey from Seattle to Siberia included a stop at Cape Fox where the visitors gathered up a items from what looked like an abandoned Tlingit Indian settlement. Much of the plunder was returned in 2001.
(WSJ, 8/31/01, p.W13)