American Indians Timeline – 1700′s To 1800′s

Published on July 9, 2013 by Casey

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American Indians Timeline
American Indians Timeline

American Indians Timeline – 1700′s To 1800′s

  • 1700 Several dozen members of the Calusa Indian tribe, nicknamed “The Fierce Ones,” escaped from Florida to Cuba in the early 1700s after Spanish soldiers and other tribes overran their region.
  • (AP, 3/14/04)

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  • 1704 English forces attacked Apalachee Indians in Florida driving them into slavery and exile. Some 800 Apalachee fled west to French-held Mobile.
  • (WSJ, 3/9/05, p.A1)

  • 1708 Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
  • (AP, 8/29/08)

  • 1711 Sep 22, The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included the enslaving of Indian children.
  • (HN, 9/22/98)

  • 1715 Apr 15, Uprising of Yamasse Indians in South Carolina.
  • (MC, 4/15/02)

  • 1722 The original Iroquois League, often known as the Five Nations (the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations) became the Six Nations after the Tuscarora nation joined the League.
  • (

  • 1725 Feb 20, New Hampshire militiamen partook in the first recorded scalping of Indians by whites in North America. 10 sleeping Indians were scalped by whites for scalp bounty.
  • (HN, 2/20/99)(MC, 2/20/02)

  • 1725 May 8, John Lovewell, US Indian fighter, died in battle.
  • (MC, 5/8/02)

  • 1729 Nov 28, Natchez Indians massacred most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.
  • (HN, 11/28/98)

  • 1730 The French arrived in Swanton, Vermont, and the plague followed. The local Abenaki Indians faded into the woods.
  • (SFC, 12/13/02, p.J7)

  • 1736 May 26, In northwestern Mississippi, British and Chickasaw Indians defeated a combined force of French soldiers and Choctaw Indians at the Battle of Ackia, thus opening the region to English settlement.
  • (AHD, 1971, p.11)(HN, 5/26/98)

  • 1736 Aug 8, Mahomet Weyonomon, a Mohegan sachem or leader, died of smallpox while waiting to see King George II to complain directly about British settlers encroaching on tribal lands in the Connecticut colony. The tribal chief was buried in an unmarked grave in a south London churchyard.
  • (AP, 11/22/06)(

  • 1750 Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Christian mission of Gnadenhutten, founded by Swiss Moravian settlers in the Lehigh Valley town of Bethlehem.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.6)

  • 1750 The Ais Indians of Florida were wiped out. In 2004 a site on Hutchinson Island, inhabited by the Ais, revealed 2 thousand year old burials.
  • (Arch, 1/05, p.13)

  • 1754 Apr, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, joined the Iroquois Indians in the Wyoming Valley along the banks of the Susquehanna River.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.6)

  • 1754 May 28, Col. George Washington helped defeat French and Indians at Ft. Duquesne, Pitts.
  • (MC, 5/28/02)

  • 1754 Jul 3, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War also called the 7 Years’ War. In 2005 Fred Anderson authored “The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War.”
  • (HN, 7/13/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.46)(WSJ, 12/14/05, p.D15)

  • 1754 Nov 29, The Gnadenhutten mission, Pa., was attacked by renegade Lenape Indians and 11 white people were killed.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.7)

  • 1755 Sep 8, British forces under William Johnson defeated the French and the Indians at the Battle of Lake George, N.Y.
  • (HN, 9/8/98)

  • 1755 Dec 31, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, led 30 Lenape Indians on a raid against English plantations along the Delaware River. Over the next few days his band killed 7 men and took 5 prisoners.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.6)

  • 1756 Apr 14, Gov. Glen of South Carolina protested against 900 Acadia Indians.
  • (MC, 4/14/02)

  • 1756 May 15, French and Indian War broke out between France and England, with final defeat of the French coming in 1763 with the British victory at the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham. [see May 17]
  • (MC, 5/15/02)

  • 1756 May 17, Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. [see May 15]
  • (HN, 5/17/98)(HNPD, 9/13/98)

  • 1756 Nov 12, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, spoke with Gov. Denny at Easton, Pa., to discuss grievances.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.6)

  • 1758 Jul 8, During the French and Indian War a British attack on Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga, New York, was foiled by the French. Some 3,500 Frenchmen defeated the British army of 15,000, which lost 2,000 men.
  • (HN, 7/8/98)(AH, 10/02, p.27)

  • 1758 Aug 29, New Jersey Legislature formed the 1st Indian reservation.
  • (MC, 8/29/01)

  • 1758 Sep 18, James Abercromby was replaced as supreme commander of British forces after his defeat by French commander, the Marquis of Montcalm, at Fort Ticonderoga during the French and Indian War.
  • (HN, 9/18/98)

  • 1760 Feb 16, Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
  • (HN, 2/16/99)(MC, 2/16/02)

  • 1760 Aug 7, Ft. Loudon, Tennessee, surrendered to Cherokee Indians.
  • (MC, 8/7/02)

  • 1761 French and Indians forces in the Ohio Valley were defeated.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.7)

  • 1761 In western North Carolina British soldiers razed Kituwha, the heart of the Cherokee Nation. Punitive raids here were repeated in 1776.
  • (Arch, 9/02, p.70)

  • 1763 Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years’ War, aka the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands including St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland.
  • (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(AH, 2/06, p.55)

  • 1763 Apr 19, Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian leader, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
  • (ON, 1/03, p.6)

  • 1763 May 7, Indian chief Pontiac began his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan.
  • (HN, 5/7/99)

  • 1763 Jul 24, Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that would one day become Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
  • (HN, 7/24/98)

  • 1763 Oct 7, George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
  • (, 8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

  • 1763 British forces, under orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst, distributed smallpox-infected blankets among American Indians in the 1st known case of its use as a biological weapon.
  • (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)(NW, 10/14/02, p.50)

  • 1764 Nov 16, Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
  • (MC, 11/16/01)

  • 1766 Jul 24, At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace agreement.
  • (HN, 7/24/98)

  • 1766 Jonathan Carver, an American-born British army officer, set out to cross the American continent, but was stopped in Minnesota by a war between the Sioux and Chippewa.
  • (SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

  • 1767 Oct 9, The survey party of Mason and Dixon came to a halt after 233 miles when Indians of the Six Nations said they had reached the end of their commission. [see Oct 18]
  • (ON, 2/04, p.10)

  • 1768 Nov 5, William Johnson, the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement.
  • (HN, 11/5/98)

  • 1769 Apr 20, Ottawa Chief Pontiac (b~1720) was murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
  • (WUD, 1994, p.1117)(HN, 4/20/98)

  • 1775 Mar 17, Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge, representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko) to purchase (for the equivalent of $50,000) all the land lying between the Ohio, Kentucky and Cumberland rivers; some 17 to 20 million acres. It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid but land cession was not reversed.
  • (

  • 1775 James Adair (~65) authored “The History of the American Indians,” based on his experiences living in their midst. In 2005 Kathryn E. Holland Braund edited a new edition.
  • (WSJ, 2/11/05, p.W6)

  • 1776 Spanish explorers encountered the native Havasupai Indians in Arizona.
  • (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)

  • 1777 Nov 15, The Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation, precursor to the U.S. Constitution. The structure of the Constitution was inspired by the Iroquois Confederacy of six major northeastern tribes. The matrilineal society of the Iroquois later inspired the suffragist movement.
  • (AP, 11/15/97)(SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.2)

  • 1778 Aug 31, British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
  • (MC, 8/31/01)

  • 1778 Sep 7, Shawnee Indians attacked and laid siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
  • (HN, 9/7/98)

  • 1778 Sep 17, The 1st treaty between the US and Indian tribes was signed at Fort Pitt.
  • (MC, 9/17/01)

  • 1778 Nov 11, British redcoats, Tory rangers and Seneca Indians in central New York state killed more than 40 people in the Cherry Valley Massacre. A regiment of 800 Tory rangers under Butler (1752-1781) and 500 Native forces under the Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant (1742-1807), fell upon the settlement, killing 47, including 32 noncombatants, mostly by tomahawk.
  • (, 11/11/07)

  • 1781-1782 Smallpox, reduced the Mandans, a Missouri River tribe of 40,000 people, down to 2,000 survivors. They partially recovered, increasing their numbers to some 12,000 by 1837.
  • (

  • 1782 Mar 8, The Gnadenhutten massacre took place as some 90 Christian Delaware Indians were slain by militiamen in Ohio in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians.
  • (AP, 3/8/98)(AH, 4/07, p.14)

  • 1784 The British gave their Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent for a new housing development in Caledonia.
  • (Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

  • 1785 Jan 21, Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa and Wyandot Indians signed a treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.
  • (HN, 1/21/99)

  • 1790 May, John Tanner (9) was kidnapped from his home in northern Kentucky by Shawnee Indians. He was taken to an area near what later became Saginaw, Michigan, where he learned the Ojibway language. After about 2 years he was sold to a woman named Net-no-kwa, who took him up to northern Michigan and later to Manitoba, Canada.
  • (ON, 4/10, p.4)(

  • 1790 Oct 3, John Ross, Chief of the United Cherokee Nation from 1839 to 1866, was born near Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Although his father was Scottish and his mother only part Cherokee, Ross was named Tsan-Usdi (Little John) and raised in the Cherokee tradition. A settled people with successful farms, strong schools, and a representative government, the Cherokee resided on 43,000 square miles of land they had held for centuries.
  • (LCTH, 10/3/99)

  • 1790 The US Trade and Intercourse Act prohibited states from acquiring land from Indians without federal approval.
  • (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)

  • 1791 Nov 3, Gen. St. Clair moved his force of approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River. St. Clair was looking for the forces of Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle 1752-1812), who had recently defeated Gen. Josiah Harmar’s (1753-1813) army. St. Clair deployed only minimal sentry positions. [see Nov 4]
  • (DoW, 1999, p.168)

  • 1791 Nov 4, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of Northwest Territory, was badly defeated by a large Indian army near Fort Wayne. Miami Indian Chief Little Turtle (1752-1812) led the powerful force of Miami, Wyandot, Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, Ojibwa and Potawatomi that inflicted the greatest defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Army at the hands of North American Indians. Some 623 regulars led by General Arthur St. Clair were killed and 258 wounded on the banks of the Wabash River near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. The staggering defeat moved Congress to authorize a larger army in 1792.
  • (HNQ, 8/10/98)(HN, 11/4/98)

  • 1794 Aug 20, American General “Mad Anthony” Wayne defeated the Ohio Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest territory, ending Indian resistance in the area.
  • (HN, 8/20/98)

  • 1794 Nov 11, The Treaty of Canandaigua was signed at Canandaigua, New York, by fifty sachems and war chiefs representing the Grand Council of the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy (including the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes), and by Timothy Pickering, official agent of President George Washington. The Canandaigua Treaty, a Treaty Between the United States of America and the Tribes of Indians Called the Six Nations, was signed.
  • (

  • 1795 Spring, Some 300 Indians fled Mission Dolores in San Francisco following a year of food shortages and disease that killed over 200. They sought refuge in the East Bay hills and Napa.
  • (SFC, 9/26/03, p.D15)

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